Where do supermassive black holes come from?

The early Universe was structureless, but some 108 years after the big bang, the temperatures and pressures were low enough so that gravity became dominant and pulled matter into isolated concentrations such as stars and galaxies. Matter always has some random spin, so it doesn't fall directly but spins at first around their centers of gravity in the form of a disk in which rotational energy gets dissipated. This way, more and moe mass accumulated that quickly formed black holes, which then grew further and further. This happens in the centers of all galaxies. Those disks appear as quasars, i.e. quasi-stellar objects whose luminosity is as bright as some 1011 suns, and all this light comes from the frictional energy released from the innermost parts of those disks. This energy conversion is more efficient than nuclear fusion!

Axel (May 27, 2016)